ERGONOMIC

BY. I GUSTI MADE OKA SUPRAPTA

Physical fitness Charges Related Work
Fire Department Officer
ABSTRACT
As a result of a too heavy workload for officers Fire Department, while physical
fitness is less, may lead to a worker suffering from disorders or diseases due to
labor. The burden of work can also lead to excessive fatigue. Facilities that do
not work anthropometrical and long working time can provide additional
workloads and lead to early fatigue and may even be fatal for Fire Department
Employee Health. To improve the physical fitness required physical training
program. Physical fitness level appropriate to the severity of the demands of
physical work load is the target of a physical training program. Design training
programs based on analysis on employment. Training principles to be followed
in order to achieve training objectives. Mapping results of measurement of
physical fitness by the Ministry of Health against 668 people in the civil service
Fire Department in Bali, Jakarta, West Java and South Sumatra, 63% gained
more than physical fitness level is very low. This is certainly very worrying
because the 63% level of physical fitness are in very poor category. In addition
to efforts to improve physical fitness through regular physical training and not
maximum continuous undertaken by civil servants. Objectives to be achieved in
the writing and study in this paper is as follows. (A) To determine the
relationship between physical fitness level and level of workload Fire
Department Employees (PDPK) is associated with fatigue, illness caused by
employment and labor productivity, (b) To determine the role of data on physical
fitness level PDPK, and (c) For know the efforts that can be done to maintain or
improve physical fitness PDPK. The method used is a literature review or
litaratur studies that seek to be studied in depth and presented in a narrative
based on facts diuangkapkan by experts mainly associated with physical fitness
PDPK workload. Different levels of physical fitness or ability will affect a
person’s workload. The difference was used as a basis for determining the level
of activity or workload may be done so that it can prevent things that are not
desired. Furthermore, different levels can also be a reference to improve the
ability of each PDPK, so as to achieve the highest levels of physical fitness level
is excellent. Physical fitness is absolutely necessary to be able to deal with
maximal workload, both for PDPK who face physical workload and mental
workload. Especially for PDPK that his job was always sitting (waiting for
command), or lifting heavy items (while putting out fires), or think the weight
(when would be headed to the scene of the fire). With regular exercise and
physical fitness will be continuous so that prime the body to be finished higher
against all the stess faced, reducing the risk factors associated with
cardiovascular disease and can also react appropriately and quickly.
I Gusti Made Oka Suprapta
Department of Biology Education, IKIP Saraswati Tabanan
Email: gustimadeoka@yahoo.co.id
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Keywords: Freshness Physical, Workload, Fire Department Employees.
Introduction
As a result of the progress of science and technology today allows the user to akitivitas
human life. For example, the availability of adequate transportation facilities resulted in some
people choose to walk instead of ride vehicles even though the distance is not too far away. This fact
causes the decrease of physical activity, which is often referred to as a passive lifestyle. The shift
pattern of working life of many dynamically become static, expected to be one cause of declining
physical fitness. Less mobile state was followed by excess body fat can cause various health
problems and tire easily and may reduce efficiency and productivity of work (Irianto, 2004). When
the motion on all organ systems of the body decreases, causing the less energy used and the more
energy is dumped, demikiam also will give the load on the heart, kidneys, liver and other organ
functions (Rahadyan, 2005). So the ability of the heart organ, blood vessels, lungs and muscles to
function at a level that is less efficient and not optimized. This contributed to the decline in physical
fitness of workers. The whole system of organs that make up the human body works in an integrated
manner with one another to determine the person’s appearance. If one of the system is not working
or unable to perform normal functions will affect other systems (Bawa, 1999). One indicator that
can be used to measure the suitability of the function of these systems is the level of physical
fitness. Physical fitness is a willingness or ability to perform daily work without experiencing
significant fatigue and still have the energy reserves to conduct emergency activity (Nala, in 2002).
Physical fitness showed the capacity of the appearance of a type of activity that involves many
muscle groups and the nervous system and cardiovascular system of respiration, in the long term.
Physical fitness is often equated with the general endurance and physical fitness evaluation to study
the physiology of these organs is a reflection of the ability of the heart, blood vessels, lungs and
muscles to function at optimal levels and efficiency. Physical fitness is the primary basis to support
every human activity or any work performed by workers. Different levels of physical fitness or
ability will affect a person’s workload. The difference was used as a basis for determining the level
of activity or workload may be done so that it can prevent things that are not desired. Furthermore,
different levels can also be a reference to improve the ability of each person, so as to achieve
highest level is the level of physical fitness is very good. Until now, data on workers’ level of
physical fitness sector in a company is not yet available in full. Limited data are often the cause of
the error in giving the company a workload that should be given, so often the case that excessive
fatigue on workers themselves to carry out their duties respectively. Similarly, efforts to program a
specific type of training to increase physical fitness and yet there has never been done. So that when
the condition is left it will have a negative impact on the ability of workers to do all the activities or
their daily work.
From the above discussion of the objectives to be achieved in the writing and study in this
paper is as follows: (a) To know the relationship between physical fitness level and level of
workload fire extinguisher service personnel associated with fatigue, illness caused by employment
and labor productivity; ( b) To determine the role of data on physical fitness level of fire department
employees, and (c) To identify businesses that can be done to maintain or improve the physical
health of fire department employees.
Methods
Material used in this study is to form opinions of experts who reveal, report the results of
research and study of physical fitness is associated with the workload. The method used is a
literature review or litaratur studies that seek to be studied in depth and presented in a narrative
based on facts diuangkapkan by experts in physical fitness is associated primarily with the
workload.
Results
Results of mapping physical fitness measurement by the Ministry of Health against 668
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people Civil Servants on Fire Department in Bali, Jakarta, West Java and South Sumatra, 63%
gained more than physical fitness level was lacking. This is certainly very worrying because the
63% level of physical fitness are in very poor category. In addition to efforts to improve physical
fitness through regular physical training and not maximum continuous undertaken by civil servants
(Karim, 2003).
According to the results of research conducted by Ganggas (2004) revealed that: one of the
problems now faced by the city of Denpasar is the emergence of a tendency with the higher
potential fire threat. Data in Denpasar City Fire Department showed the average incidence of fires
from year to year for an average of 81 fires with losses estimated to reach 42.9 billion dollars a year.
In 2000 the total losses reach Rp. 189.151 billion rupiah. The total loss is almost equal amount of
local revenue and expenditure budget (APBD) Denpasar year 2000 which amounted to Rp. 190.663
billion rupiah. 2001 special events once a fire reaches 133, it includes 22 events that took place in
the region of Badung regency. While the year 2002 up to July 1999 alone was carrying fire
occurrence. The most dominant cause of the fire was caused by electrical short circuit, an accident
in the use of stoves, due to cigarette butts and a few other causes. Referring to Performance
Improvement Programme Officer Fire Department Fire Hazard Penganggulangan Denpasar one is
to improve the quality of human resources, with targets to improve skills and to maintain alertness
or vigilance prima firefighters. In addition, for the procurement of facilities and infrastructure
firefighters regularly been budgeted and can be realized very well. While the issue of quality human
resources to scale the priority that should be improved in response to the demands of the
performance of the threat of fire hazard mitigation officer. In performing this task at high risk, not
only firefighters extinguish the flames, but also save lives and safeguard property. So they must be
skilled, healthy, physically and mentally strong and have good physical fitness in order not to tire
easily. From the evaluation results and observations at the Denpasar City Fire Department shows
that the performance of the work of the firemen are still marginal, meaning that no significant
increase in the mean. In fact there is a perception among the public that fire apparatus Denpasar
impressed very slow that failed to save the object who suffered from fire. This is caused because
there is no programmatic activities undertaken to improve the physical fitness of fire officers.
During this activity carried out only in the form of table tennis games have the character of
entertainment, to fill empty time and eliminate saturation. Most firefighters are smokers who can
spend two packs of cigarettes during the 12-hour picket duty work. Other activity is to conduct
routine training marching for ± 10 (ten) minutes before the morning assembly held. Based on the
observed workload when tackling fires were categorized as heavy to very heavy, because when
tackling fires takes approximately two hours, the officer continues to run and walk from one place
to another, let alone the location of the fire was not able to pass a vehicle fire. On the other hand
physical fitness test fire department officials in Denpasar less category.
Discussion
Physical Fitness Level Relationships with Workload
Improved physical fitness status of a person through physical training regularly and
continuously. This is related to supply enough energy to support activities during a certain time
(Candra, 1 999). Type or types of appropriate exercise to improve aerobic capacity so that increased
physical fitness is running intervals (Suprapta, 2008; Ganggas, 2004). In addition it can also be run,
jog, walk, climb, fartlek, paddle, bike, swimming and aerobics. Meanwhile, as a support or
distraction may also be done by selecting one or more types of sports games like bolavoli,
badminton, soccer, basketball, table tennis or ping pong and the other sports done in a fairly long
period, in which players constantly moving and not silent (Nala, 2002). Providing training to
workers, to be effective to improve physical fitness training is to provide an intensity of 80% – 85%
of maximal capacity or working heart rate training zone is located at between 72% – 87% of
maximal heart rate (Moeloek, 1984). Maximal heart rate or HR max. = 220 – aging (Wilmore,
1994). Frequency as much as three times a week .. Interval training leads to more training with
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ergonomic principles, because there is a break in training is active in order to reduce boredom, and
fatigue during training (Suprapta, 2008). According Manuaba (1998); absolutely necessary for
physical fitness could face a maximum workload, both for the workers who face physical workload
and mental workload. Especially for workers who in his work is always sitting, or lifting heavy
things, or thinking hard. With regular exercise and physical fitness will be continuous so that prime
the body to be finished higher against all the stess faced, reducing the risk factors associated with
cardiovascular disease and can also react appropriately and quickly. Or in other words, accidents
due to fatigue, slow to react, less agile, and others can be avoided. Improved physical fitness
workers need pioneered in planning, orderly and sustainable, because with increased physical
fitness, the workload imposed on workers can be solved with the best / best achieved with an
efficiency that setinggi-tingginya/optimal. Workload (workload) is a business that must be paid by
someone to meet the “demand” from the job. While Capacity is the ability / capacity of human
beings. This capacity can be measured from the physical condition of a person physical fitness. In
ergonomics, principles of design in the work is still keeping the workload is smaller than the
capacity or the ability of human beings, so that this principle can prevent things that are not
desirable, such as workplace accidents, premature fatigue, and others. When the human capacity
improved by enhancing the physical fitness, while the workload remains the body will be able to
complete the job with the optimal and efficient. Level of physical fitness in accordance with the
demands of the severity of the physical workload was the target of a physical training program
(Anonymous, 2008). Excellent physical fitness and is supported by a high awareness and broad
knowledge will make people resistant to mental workload. Other well as for those of low physical
fitness level, given the mental burden would quickly have tired him out ringanpun (MIRANTI,
2008). Seeing the fact that the physical fitness field staff Denpasar firefighters are at less category
(Ganggas, 2004), and the workload they carried were categorized as heavy to very heavy so to avoid
premature fatigue, sore from work, slow to react, less agile and can not complete the target, and
decreased work productivity can be minimized or eliminated by increasing physical fitness through
regular physical training methods and continuous.
Role of Physical Employee Level Data Freshness in the Fire Department.
Limited data about the level of physical fitness is often the cause of the fault of the
employer in providing a workload that should be given, so that health problems often occur on the
employees to perform their respective duties. There are several opinions about the effect of
workload that is incompatible with physical fitness level, namely:
1. As a result of a too heavy workload and lack of physical fitness, it can lead to a worker suffering
from disorders or diseases due to labor (and Kessos MOH RI, 2000).
2. Due to heavy physical workloads associated with working time of more than eight hours, whereas
less physical fitness, it can reduce labor productivity and higher accident rate and the sick (Budiono,
et al., 2000). City fire department employees working for 12 hours Denpasar (Ganggas, 2004).
3. Due to excessive work load, without offset by excellent physical fitness, it can lead to fatigue
(Budiono, et al., 2000). The increasing workload, the oxygen consumption will increase to its
maximum condition was obtained. Higher workload that can not be carried out in aerobic
conditions, caused by insufficient oxygen for an aerobic process. The result was a manifestation of
fatigue characterized by increased lactic acid content (Nurmianto, in 2003).
4. Due to heavy workload, without balanced with good physical fitness, it can lead to employment
injury. That’s because energy consumption is very limited in overcoming the heavy burden of work,
but a body of work trying to overcome the heavy burden of work resulting in injury. Workload
overload, such as employment target that exceeds the ability of the workers concerned will result in
fatigue and tension high. Each workload should be adjusted with the ability of a person’s body.
When the ratio of the demands of the task (Task Demand)> Capacity of work (Work Capacity), then
the final result: discomfort overstress, fatigue, accidents, injuries, pain and unproductive. When the
ratio of the demands of the task (Task Demand) <Capacity work (Work Capacity), the end result
was: undertress, boredom, boredom, sluggishness, sick and unproductive. In order to optimize
558
performance, it is necessary dynamic balance (task demand = Work capacity) in order to reach a
healthy condition, safe, comfortable and productive (Anies, 2002).
Attempts to maintain or increase physical fitness.
Given two types of physical training program, namely: a physical training program of general
and specific physical training program. The first was shown to improve the health of workers as a
whole and maintain physical fitness levels. The result of this training is required for all types of
jobs. The second was shown to enhance the ability of certain biomotorik (eg muscle strength and
endurance), in accordance with the demands of the task for this kind of job in question. Type or
types of appropriate exercise to improve general endurance, including physical fitness is also
running, jogging, road, hiking, fartlek, paddle, bike, swimming and aerobics. Meanwhile, as a
support or distraction can also be done by selecting one or more types of sports games like bolavoli,
Badminton, soccer, basketball, tennis or ping pong tables and other sports done in a fairly long
period in which the players move on and not dwell ( Nala, 2002). Type of exercise can improve
physical fitness is to involve most body muscles, cyclic motion (repeatedly), predominantly aerobic
training and a minimum time (15 minutes).
Size of Training To Improve Physical Fitness or physical fitness need our attention. A training
program will produce good results, when compiled based on the initial ability of the worker. Based
on initial capabilities acquired through initial tests, it can be prepared the right dose of training. By
Nala (2 002), some of the requirements of measures to be taken as: the type, intensity, duration,
repetitions, sets, and frequency.
Conclusions
(1). Workload of fire department employees belong to a very heavy weight. To avoid the inability to
run tasks such as the emergence of early fatigue, sore from work, slow to react, less agile and could
not complete the task according to target, and decreased work productivity can be minimized or
eliminated by increasing physical fitness through regular physical training methods and continuous.
(2). Limited data about the level of physical fitness is often the cause of the fault of the employer in
providing a workload that should be given, so that health problems often occur on the employees to
perform their respective duties. (3). Quantity of training to improve physical fitness need our
attention. A training program will produce good results, when compiled on the basis of the ability of
the beginning of the employee. Based on initial capabilities acquired through initial tests, it can be
prepared the right dose of training.
References
Anies. 2002. Berbagai Penyakit akibat Lingkungan Kerja dan Upaya Penanggulangannya, Jakarta: PT. Elex Media
Komputindo.
Anonim, 2008. Beban Kerja. [cited 2010 Maret 5] Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ niosh/docs/94-110/
Bawa. 1999. Fisiologi Tubuh Manusia. Singaraja: Penerbit Bioma.
Budiono, A.M.S. dkk. 2000. Bunga Rampai Hiperkes & KK. Semarang: BPUNDIP.
Candra, I.A. 1999. Seri Anatomi dan Fisiologi Tubuh Manusia (Sistem Respirasi dan Sistem Transfortasi). Singaraja: Bioma.
Depkes dan Kessos RI. 2000. Modul-3 Konsep K3, Jakarta: Depkes RI.
Ganggas, Ardy. 2004. Pelatihan Lari Interval Model ”A” Lebih Baik Dari Model ”B” Dalam Meningkatkan Kesegaran
Jasmani Petugas Kebakaran Dinas Kebakaran Kota Denpasar. (Tesis). Denpasar: Program Pascasarjana
Universitas Udayana.
Irianto, J.P. 2004. Pedoman Praktis Berolahraga untuk Kebugaran dan Kesehatan. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Andi.
Karim, F. 2003. Materi Advokasi Kesehatan Olahraga. Jakarta: Departemen Kesehatan RI.
Manuaba. 1998. Bunga Rampai Ergonomi, Vol. I. Denpasar: Program Studi Ergonomi-Fisiologi Kerja Universitas Udaya.
Miranti, D.N. 2008. Hubungan Antara Beban Kerja Dengan Tingkat Kelelahan Pekerja. [cited 2010 Maret 5] Available

 

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